EcotoxicoMic members

EcotoxicoMic is an international Network. You are welcome to join us!

Last list update: 12 November 2019

inconnuALLETTO Lionel (Chambre régionale d’agriculture Occitanie – INRA, FRANCE)

Keywords: agroecology; soil science; environmental chemistry,  chimie environnementale; systemic agronomy; pesticides fate and behaviour

ARES.GP.pngARES Angela (Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, Onna, JAPAN)

Keywords: Microbial ecology, Biomonitoring, Environmental chemistry, Metabarcoding, Transcriptomics


ANDRES GPARIA ANDRES Maria (Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica, Heredia, COSTA RICA)

Keywords: horizontal gene transfer, microbial ecology, microbial community physiology, flow cytometry, biodegradation

ARSLAN Muhammad (UFZ, Leipzig, GERMANY)  Arslan GP

Keywords: plant-bacteria interlpay; phytotoxicity; microbiome-mediated health; endophytic bacteria; annotation

inconnuARTHAUD Pierre-Adrien (Grenoble Alpes University, FRANCE)

Keywords: Bioaccumulation, Pesticides/pollutant biodegradation, Trophic interaction, Adaptation, Bioavailability.

inconnuARTIGAS Joan (Université Clermont Auvergne, FRANCE)

Keywords: leaf litter decomposition; biofilms; extracellular enzymatic activities; microbial interactions; global change

inconnuBARRET Maialen (Université de Toulouse, FRANCE)

Keywords: Nitrogen cycle, Carbon cycle, Biofilm, Trophic interactions, Metabarcodinge

inconnuBARTHELMEBS Lise (University of Perpignan, FRANCE)

Keywords: Bacteria, Monitoring, Microbial adaptation, Pesticides impact and detection


BASHARAT Zarrin (Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi, PAKISTAN)

Keywords: bacteria, micropollutants, stress, soil, water

inconnuBATISSON Isabelle (Université Clermont Auvergne, FRANCE)

Keywords: Ecotoxicology; Pesticide biodegradation; Isolation of degrading-strains; Structural and functionnal responses; Adaptation

inconnuBATISTA Daniela Miranda (Center of Molecular and Environmental Biology, Braga, PORTUGAL)

Keywords: Microbial decomposers; Aquatic fungi; molecular techniques

Baudy GPBAUDY Patrick (University of Koblenz-Landau, GERMANY)

Keywords: Aquatic fungi, Microbial interactions, Heterotrophic food webs, Quantitative real-time PCR, Biodiversity-ecosystem functioning


Keywords: transcriptomics, microalgae, mercury, nCounter, RNA-Seq


Bérard GPBERARD Annette (INRA, Avignon, FRANCE)

Keywords: PICT, resistance, resilience, microbial functions, climatic changes

MCAMBERNARD Cécile (National Museum of Natural History, Paris, FRANCE)

Keywords: Cyanobacteria, cyanotoxins, eutrophication, toxicity, microalgae

inconnuBILLET Loren (Irstea/INRA, FRANCE)

Keywords: antibiotics, antibioresistance, degradation, agrosystem, coalescence

BINET Marie (EDF R&D, Chatou, FRANCE)             inconnu

Keywords: legionella; cooling towers; biocide treatment; microbial ecology

inconnuBITTER Kristina (RWTH Aachen University, GERMANY)

Keywords: biodegradation, bioavailability, soil, microbial diversity, plastics

inconnuBONET Berta (The University of Birmingham, UK)

Keywords: freshwater pollution assessment, freshwater biofilm communities, bioindicator, biomarkers

BONNINEAU Chloé (Irstea, Lyon-Villeurbanne, FRANCE)

Keywords: microbial function; aquatic; microbial adaptation; resilience; community


BOUCHEZ GPBOUCHEZ Agnès (INRA, Thonon-les-bains, FRANCE)

Keywords: microbial community ecology, aquatic ecology, quality assessment, freshwater ecosystems, metabarcoding

BrandtBRANDT Kristian Koefoed (University of Copenhagen, DENMARK)

Keywords: microbe-pollutant interactions, microbial community analysis, whole-cell bioreporters, bioremediation, environmental dimension of antibiotic resistance

inconnuBRIAND Enora (Ifremer, Nantes, FRANCE)

Keywords: harmful algal bloom, microbial community ecology, chemical ecology, toxins biodegradation, phycosphere

Bringel_GPBRINGEL Françoise (CNRS, Université de Strasbourg, FRANCE)

Keywords: Microbial diversity, Molecular diversity, Microbial metabolism, Genomics of dehalogenation and C1 metabolism, Comparative genomics

inconnuBRUN Nadja (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, USA)

Keywords: Microbial ecology and ecotoxicology, Microbiome, Organic Pollutants, Trophic interactions, Functional responses

BUNDSCHUH Mirco (University of Koblenz-Landau, GERMANY)        inconnu

Keywords: aquatic fungi; leaf decomposition; bottom up effects; periphyton; qPCR

CAGNON Christine (Pau University, FRANCE)        inconnu

Keywords: microbial communities; adaptive response; mobile genetic elements; integrons; adaptive genes    

Calvayrac GP

CALVAYRAC Christophe (University of Perpignan, FRANCE)

Keywords: pesticides; microbial biotransformations and biodegradations; métabolites; microbial ecotoxicity

Louis CarlesCARLES Louis (Eawag, Dübendorf, SWITZERLAND)

Keywords: Micropollutants; biofilm; wastewater; PICT; pesticides

inconnuCEBRON Aurélie (CNRS, Université de Lorraine, Nancy, FRANCE)

Keywords: anthropized soils, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, bacterial and fungal communities, rhizosphere, stable isotope probing

chapon_virginieCHAPON Virginie (CEA, Saint Paul Lez Durance, FRANCE)

Keywords: bacteria-radionuclide interactions, nuclear toxicology, radionuclide tolerance, stress response, bioremediation

inconnu CHELONI Giulia (University of Geneva, SWITZERLAND)

Keywords: uptake, toxicity, stress response, multiple stressors, light irradiation

CHAUMET Betty (Irstea, Bordeaux, FRANCE)

Keywords: biofilms; pesticides; bioaccumulation; toxicokinetic; toxicodynamic

Chonova GPCHONOVA Teofana (INRA, Thonon-les-bains, France)

Keywords:  microbial community ecology, aquatic ecology, water quality assessment, freshwater ecosystems, metabarcoding

COMTE Katia (MNHN, Paris, FRANCE)       inconnu

Keywords:  microcystins; anatoxins; pharmaceuticals emergent products

nathalie_coquille GPCOQUILLÉ Nathalie (Ifremer, Nantes, FRANCE)

Keywords: physiological responses of phytoplanktonic and benthic microalgae; pesticides and metals; influence of natural DOM; role of marine phytoplankton as a vector of trophic contamination  


CORCOLL Natàlia (University of Gothenburg, SWEDEN)

Keywords: risk assessment, biodiversity, monitoring, ecosystem services, evolutionary toxicology

inconnuCOSIO Claudia (Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, FRANCE)

Keywords: microalagae, microbial ecology, trace elements, omics, mixtures


inconnuCRAMPON marc (BRGM, Orléans, FRANCE)

Keywords: Persistant Organic Pollutants, Bioremediation, PAHs, Contaminants ecotoxicity, Bioavailability

inconnuCRAVO-LAUREAU Cristiana (Pau University, FRANCE)

Keywords: Microbial ecology and ecotoxicology, Hydrocarbons biodegradation, Experimental ecology, Biogeochemical cycles, Microbiology of anaerobes


CROZE Aurélien (MSc Student, University Lyon I, FRANCE)

Keywords: bioremediation, bioleaching, recycling, biocontrol, xenobiotic


inconnuDELRUE Florian (CEA Cadarache, FRANCE)

Keywords: bioremediation, microalgae


DESIANTE Werner Leonardo (Eawag, Dübendorf, ZWITZERLAND)

Keywords: stream, biofilm, biotransformation,  pollution-induced community tolerance, micropollutants

inconnuDEVERS Marion (INRA, Dijon, FRANCE)

Keywords: bacterial adaptation, soil microbial ecology, degradation, antibiotic resistance

inconnuDOOSE Caroline (INRS ETE, Québec, CANADA)

Keywords: metals ; pesticides ; microbial ecotoxicity ; micromeiofauna ; uptakes

DuarteDUARTE Bernardo (University of Lisbon, PORTUGAL)

Keywords: phytoplankton; photochemistry; oxidative stress; lipid metabolism; metabolomics

dupraz GPDUPRAZ Valentin (IFREMER / University of Nantes, FRANCE)

Keywords: pesticides toxicity; mixture toxicity; microalgae; passive samplers; bioassays

inconnuDURAN Robert (Pau University, FRANCE)

Keywords: Microbial diversity, molecular diversity, microbial assemblage, metagenomic, oil spill

digDURAND Marie-José (University of Nantes, FRANCE)

Keywords: bioassay,, toxicity, biodegradation, monitoring, bioluminescence


EL SEBAI Talaat (National Research Centre, Cairo, EGYPT)

Keywords: pesticides, biodegradation, bioremediation, biobeds, adaptation

inconnuERIKSSON Martin (Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden)

Keywords: Pollution-Induced Community Tolerance (PICT), metagenomics, metabarcoding, risk assessment, biofilms

Fernandes GPFERNANDES Isabel (University of Minho, Braga, PORTUGAL)

Keywords: leaf decomposition, aquatic fungi, temperature, biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, freshwaters


FORTIN Claude (INRS, Québec, CANADA)

Keywords: metals; biofilms; algae; toxicity; uptake


inconnuFOULQUIER Arnaud (Université Grenoble Alpes, FRANCE)

Keywords: PICT ; stress ecology ; multi-stress ; functional ecology

FraissinetFRAISSINET-TACHET Laurence (University Lyon I, FRANCE)

Keywords:  eukaryotic heavy-metal resistance mechanisms; functional eukaryotic metatrancriptomics; metallothioneins; organic pollutant microbial degradation

Freixa GPFREIXA Anna (Catalan Institute for Water Research, ICRA,Girona, SPAIN)

Keywords:  Biofilms, Dissolved organic carbon, Rivers, Ecosystem functioning, Climate change stressors

inconnuGALLOIS Nicolas (CEA, Saint Paul lez Durance, FRANCE)

Keywords: bacteria-radionuclide interactions, nuclear toxicology, radionuclide tolerance, stress response, bioremediation

inconnuGEORGES DES AULNOIS Maxime (Ifremer, Nantes, FRANCE)

Keywords: Ecophysiology, Cyanobacteria, Toxin production, Microcystis

inconnuGERMAINE Kieran (Institute Of Technology Carlow, IRELAND)

Keywords: bioremediation, organic pollutants, heavy metals, biosensors

Gosset GPGOSSET Antoine (ENTPE,Vaulx-en-Velin, FRANCE)

Keywords: Microalgae, Bioassay, Biosensor, Fluorescence, Ecotoxicity

Grenni GPGRENNI Paola (National Research Council, ITALY)

Keywords: bioremediation, environmental chemistry, environmental risk of chemicals, ecotoxicity assessment of soils, recovery capacity

GUENET Bertrand (CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette, FRANCE)  inconnu

Keywords: soil carbon cycles; greenhouse gases; global scale

inconnuGUASCH Helena (University of Girona, SPAIN)

Keywords: community responses, cost of adaptation, functional diversity, nutrient cycling

inconnuHAFEEZ Farhan (COMSATS Institute of IIT Pakistan, PAKISTAN)

Keywords: microbial ecology, biodegradation, bioremediation, heavy metal toxicity, microbial toxicology


HANANO Abdulsamie (Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus, SYRIA)

Keywords: microbial transcription and functional responses to POPs; alterations in lipid biosysnthensis pathway; microbial lipid biomarkers; microbial detoxification enzymes; POPs-degradation pathways.

inconnuHELLAL Jennifer (BRGM, Orléans, FRANCE)

Keywords: bioindication, microbial community ecology, interations between contaminents and bacteria, biodegradation.

inconnuHENRY Sonia (Université de Lorraine, Yutz, FRANCE)

Keywords: microbial ecology and ecotoxicology, phyto/rhizoremediation, soil/sediment, PAHs/HCT, heavy metals

inconnuHERY Marina (University of Montpellier, FRANCE)

Keywords: biotransformations; acid mine drainage; bioremediation; biogeochemistry.

Hess GPHESS Philipp (Ifremer, Nantes, FRANCE)

Keywords: Interactions of micro-algae with other micro-algae and macro-organisms

inconnuHUNTING Ellard (University of Bristol, UK)

Keywords: Microbial Ecology, Agricultural chemicals, Bio-electrochemistry, Physical Ecology, Organic matter degradation

inconnuHUSSAIN Sabir (Government College University, Faisalabad, PAKISTAN)

Keywords: Textile wastewaters, Bacteria, Biodecolorization, Azo-Dyes, Detoxification

inconnuJANADHAN Ausuri (MSc Graduate, INDIA)

Keywords: Microbial Ecology, Bioremediation of xenobiotics, Ecogenomics, Analytical instruments handling, Biosorption

inconnuKARPOUZAS Dimitrios (University of Thessaly, GREECE)

Keywords: pesticides, soil, microbial, toxicity

KIM TIAM GP.jpgKIM TIAM Sandra (MNHN, Paris, France)

Keywords:  omics, metabolomic, transcriptomic

inconnuKISH Adrienne (MNHN, Paris, FRANCE)

Keywords:  extremophiles, metal/microorganism interactions, S-layers, bioremediation, heavy metals

inconnuLADERRIERE Vincent (INRS-ETE, Québec, CANADA)

Keywords:  Biofilm, Biomonitoring, Ecotoxicity, Metal speciation, Mining effluents

Langarica Fuentes GPLANGARICA FUENTES Adrian (University of Tübingen, GERMANY)

Keywords:  pesticide biodegradation, microbial ecotoxicology, omics techniques, soil and water ecology, catchment scale

LARRAS Floriane (UFZ, Leipzig, GERMANY)

Keywords: functions; OMICs; risk assessment; biomonitoring

inconnuLASSUDERIE Malween (Ifremer, Concarneau, France)

Keywords: Harmful Algal Blooms, Ichtyotoxicity, Phycotoxins

LAVERGNE Céline (PUCV, CHILE)   inconnu

Keywords:  mercury methylation/demethylation pathways; microbial diversity; impact of mining activity; microbial diversity; bioremediation

inconnuLAVIALE Martin (Université de Lorraine, Metz, FRANCE)

Keywords:  phototrophic biofilms, pesticides, ecophysio-toxicology, multiple stress, photosynthesis

inconnuLAVOIE Isabelle (INRS-ETE, Quebec, CANADA)

Keywords:  Urban and agricultural environments, Climate change, Fatty acids, Teratologies

inconnuLAWRENCE John (Environment and Climate Change Canada, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, CANADA)

Keywords: communities, biofilms, response, multi-metric, omics



Keywords:  microalgae; bioremediation

LELegras GPGRAS Marc (Institut Polytechnique UniLaSalle, Mont-Saint-Aignan, FRANCE)

Keywords:  phytoremediation, bioaccumulation, biodegradation, microbial communities as ecological indicators


LE PASLIER Denis (Genoscope, Evry, FRANCE)

Keywords:  kepone; chlordecone; anaerobiosis; microbial biodegradation; environmental genomics

Lyautey GPLYAUTEY Emilie (USMB, Le-Bourget-du-Lac, FRANCE)

Keywords: community level; diversity; structure; functions

Ayanleh GP

MAHAMOUD AHMED Ayanleh (USMB/Irstea/University of Djibouti; FRANCE/DJIBOUTI)

Keywords: benthic community; persistent contaminants; adapation; resistance genes

MALAGNOUX Laure (Envisol, La Tour du Pin, FRANCE)      inconnu

Keywords: polluted sites; microbial communities; bioremediation; phytomanagement

inconnuMALBEZIN Laura (Student, FRANCE)

Keywords:  Multi-stress, Environmental assessment, organic and inorganic contamination, ecotoxicology, diatoms

MALDANI GPMALDANI Mohamed (Biological Resources and Marine Biotechnologies Institute, Messina, ITALY)

Keywords: Pesticides/pollutant biodegradation, Bacteria, Monitoring, Microbial ecotoxicology.


inconnuMALLET Clarisse (Clermont Auvergne University, FRANCE)

Keywords: natural and anthropic stresses, structural and functional microbial responses, microbial interactions, population level, carbon and nitrogen cycles

inconnuMAMUN Abdullah Al (Ocean University of China, Shandong, CHINA)

Keywords: Protozoa, Aquatic ecosystems, Bio-assessment, Bio-indicators

inconnuMARIE Benjamin (CNRS MNHN, Paris, FRANCE)

Keywords: Cyanobacteria, cyanotoxins, ecotoxicology, blooms, metabolomics

Fabrice GP


Keywords: microbial ecotoxicology; pesticide biodegradation; adaptation; antibiotics

inconnuMARTINS Jean (CNRS – Univ. Grenoble Alpes, FRANCE)

Keywords: Persistant Organic Pollutants, bioremediation, PAHs, Contaminants ecotoxicity, Bioavailability, Groundwater, Soils

fbtMILAKOVIC Milena (Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, CROATIA)

Keywords: Antibiotic resistance; Pharmaceutical wastewaters; Environmental pollution with antibiotics; Antibiotic resistance genes; Bacterial communities

MORIN Soizic (Irstea, Bordeaux, FRANCE)

Keywords: biofilm; diatoms; community structure; functions; multistress

Nazaret.jpgNAZARET Sylvie (University Lyon I, FRANCE)

Keywords: Bacterial communities, Adaptation, Antibioresistance, Multi-stress, Efflux pump

inconnuNEURY-ORMANNI Julie (Irstea, Bordeaux, FRANCE)

Keywords: Biofilm, Micro-meiofauna, Microalgae, Herbivory, Pesticide


NOYER Mégane (University of Perpignan, FRANCE)

Keywords: global changes in a Mediterranean context; urban ecosystems; multipollution events; microbial biomarkers/bioindicators; water quality

inconnuOUSTRIERE Nadege (ISA Lille, FRANCE)

Keywords: Study of the diversity of microbial communities following the remediation of contaminated sites.


PALACIOS Carmen (University of Perpignan, FRANCE)

Keywords: global changes in a Mediterranean context; urban ecosystems; multipollution events; microbial biomarkers; holobiont ecotoxicology

inconnuPASCOAL Claudia (Institute of Science and Innovation for Bio-sustainability (IB-S) / University of Minho, PORTUGAL)

Keywords: nanotoxicity, emerging contaminants, microbial communities, food webs,biomarkers

inconnuPATIL Chandrashekhar (Université de Perpignan, FRANCE)

Keywords: Metabolomics, Environmental toxicity, Alternative impact assessment tools, Resilience, Biopesticides

PESCE Stéphane (Irstea, Lyon-Villeurbanne, FRANCE)

Keywords: benthic communities; bioindication of toxicants; Pollution Induced Community Tolerance (PICT); soil-water-sediment continuum; structural and functional responses

btyPINEDA-MORA Daniel (Autonomous University of Guerrero, Acapulco, MEXICO)

Keywords: Streams Biofilms, Biomonitoring, Water Quality Assessment, Aquatic Ecosystems, Aquatic Microbial Ecology

inconnuPRADHAN Arunava (University of Minho, Braga, PORTUGAL)

Keywords: Freshwater microbial communities, Emerging chemical contaminants (ECCs), Stress biomarkers, Microbial OMICs, Nanoecotoxicology

inconnuPRINGAULT Olivier (IRD Marseille, FRANCE)

Keywords: Multidose, Low dose, Bacterioplankton-phytoplankton coupling, Bioremediation, Resistance

RAFINRAFIN Catherine (Université du Littoral Côte d’Opale, Dunkerque, FRANCE)

Keywords:  Saprotrophic fungi, Anthropized soils, Persistant Organic Pollutants, Biodegradation, Microbial ecology and ecotoxicology

RAFIQUE Nazia (NARC, Islamabad, PAKISTAN)                inconnu

Keywords:  interaction of pesticides and their metabolites with microbial population in soil, pesticides-metals interaction in soil; pesticides-microbial interaction in water; microbial degradation of pesticides

RichaumeRICHAUME Agnès (University Lyon I, FRANCE)

Keywords: soil microbial communities; N cycle; agro-ecosystems; microbial activities; microbial diversity

ROCCHI Steffi (CHRU Jean Minjoz, Besançon, FRANCE)      inconnu

Keywords: fungi; azole resistance; soils contamination; bacteria; duste mites


ROMERO Ferran (Girona, Catalunya, SPAIN)

Keywords: mesocosms; biofilms; multiple stressors; high-throughput sequencing; quantitative PCR

inconnuROUABHI Yamina Leila (University of Mons, BELGIUM)

Keywords: plankton, pollution, heavy metals, biomagnification, ecotoxicology


inconnuSEENA Sahadevan (University of Coimbra, PORTUGAL)

Keywords: Freshwaters, Bacteria, Fungi, Ecosystem functioning, Nanomaterials

inconnuSERRANO Miguel Angel Saldana (San Ignacio de Loyola University, Lima, PERU)

Keywords: Biomarkers, Water pollution, Water quality, Bioremediation, Biodegradation

Simonin GP SIMONIN Marie (Duke University, USA)

Keywords: Resistance and Resilience of microbial communities, Indicator Taxa, Gradient Ecology, Multiple Stressors, Interactive Effects

Slaveykova Vera GPSLAVEYKOVA Vera (University of Geneva, Switzerland)

Keywords: Bioavailability, Molecular ecotoxicology, Transcriptomics, Community ecotoxicology, Biodiversity

inconnuSVILICIC PETRIC Ines (Institute Ruder Boskovic, Zagreb, CROATIA)

Keywords: natural microbial communities response to pollution; xenobiotics biodegradation; biogeochemical cycling; bioremediation


TARDY Vincent (Irstea, Lyon-Villeurbanne, FRANCE)

Keywords: microbial ecotoxicology; microbial ecology; taxonomic and functionnal diversity; ecosystem functionning; ecosystem services

Ahmed TliliTLILI Ahmed (Eawag, Dübendorf, ZWITZERLAND)

Keywords: Aquatic Biofilms; Fresh Waters; Pollution-Induced Community Tolerance; Microbial Decomposers

THIOUR GPTHIOUR MAUPRIVEZ Clémence (Université de Perpignan Via Domitia & INRA Dijon, FRANCE)

Keywords: Micobial ecotoxicology, B-triketone herbicides, Soil microbial communities, Biomarkers


TOPP Ed (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, London, Ontario, CANADA)

Keywords: agriculture; antibiotic resistance; soil; sewage sludge; manure;


Tsiola GPTSIOLA Anastasia (Hellenic Centre for Marine Research, Heraklion Crete, GREECE)

Keywords: planktonic viruses and bacteria, metagenomics, lysogeny, auxiliary metabolic genes, aquaculture

inconnuVANNIER Pauline (Matís_Iceland, Reykjavík, ICELAND)

Keywords: Microbial ecology, Extreme environments, Marine environments, Genomic, Metabolism

inconnu VEDRENNE Jacky (Irstea, Bordeaux-Cestas, FRANCE)

Keywords: biofilm, micro-méiofaune, multistress, broutage, fonctions

vuilleumier_stephaneVUILLEUMIER Stéphane (Université de Strasbourg, FRANCE)

Keywords: Bioindication, Bioremediation, Contaminant biodegradation, Genomics, Metabolic pathways

inconnuWALDER Florian (Agroscope, Zürich, SWITZERLAND)

Keywords: Threat of agronomical intensification to soil functions driven by microorganism ( eg nutrient cycle, soil structure, water retention)

inconnuWICK Lukas Yvo (UFZ, Leipzig, GERMANY)

Keywords: ecology of contaminant biodegradation; dispersal ecology; mycophere ecology; contaminant bioavailability; fungus bacteria Interactions

inconnuYANG Yi (Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, CHINA)

Keywords: reductive dehalogenation, geomicrobiology, microbial ecology and ecotoxicology, environmental microbiology, microbial biotechnology

Ziller GPZILLER Antoine (Université des Antilles, Martinique, FRANCE)

Keywords: Metallothioneins, Cellular Homoeostasis of Reactive Metal Species, Soil Microbial Ecology, Systems Biology, Health and Environmental Inequalities

inconnuZIRAH Séverine (National Museum of Natural History, Paris, FRANCE)

Keywords: Antimicrobial peptides from bacteria, S-layer proteins and role in tolerance to extreme environments